Typhoid, also known as Enteric fever, is a communicable disease. It is a water-borne disease in which the bacteria is transmitted through contaminated water or food. Typhoid fever is rare in industrial countries, but continues to be a significant public health issue in developing countries.

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious illness associated with fever that is most often caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria.If not treated in time, it can cause serious complications, and can even be fatal. Typhoid fever is highly contagious. An infected person can pass the bacteria out of their body in their stool, or less commonly, in their urine.


  • It is transmitted through the faeco-oral route
  • Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water.
  • People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool.


First Week

  • Headache, fatigue and weakness
  • Stomach and abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Patients have a sustained fever as high as 103 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (39 to 40 degrees Celsius)

Second Week

  • Splenomegaly, abdominal distension and pain is felt.
  • Relative bradycardia and rash or rose spots in the trunk are observed.

Third Week

  • If the patient isn’t treated, the person becomes very ill and confused.
  • Complications happen, such as bleeding into the intestines and infection of the blood.


  • Wash hands frequently in hot, soapy water before eating or preparing food, as well as after using the toilet.
  • Eat foods that have been thoroughly cooked and that are still hot and steaming.
  • Only eat raw vegetables if they can be peeled. Items such as lettuce are particularly at risk of contamination and are very difficult to clean properly.
  • Avoid food and drinks being sold by street vendors as it is difficult to keep food clean in the street.
  • Vaccination
    • First type of vaccine: Contains killed Salmonella typhi bacteria, administered by a shot.
    • Second type of vaccine: Contains a live but weakened strain of the Salmonella bacteria that causes typhoid fever, taken by mouth.


  • Ciprofloxacin is the best antibiotic.
  • Other drug used is Amoxicillin.
  • With appropriate antibiotic therapy, there is usually improvement within one to two days and recovery within seven to 10 days.